To be honest, I got so caught up in the other aspects of my research that I didn't spend nearly as much time looking into how to perform testing.
Generally speaking, I read a lot about how various simulators, emulators, etc. are limited in their usefulness. To really get a good sense of how your site will perform on a mobile device you need, well, a mobile device.
So buy yourself an iPhone, try to talk your significant other into getting an Android, and then maybe find a friend who has a Windows Phone 7 or a Blackberry or something. That should give you a pretty good test bed.
Short of that, you can certainly play around with the emulators. There are also services available that will test your site on a variety of devices and send you pictures of the results.
For a discussion of a few of these tools and services, read Jennifer Farley's article over at SitePoint.
Of particular interest is the W3C's mobileOK Checker which measures your site against their Mobile Web Best Practices, which I will discuss in greater detail later in The "Zen" Factor. (For kicks I ran my company's website through the Checker, which scored a dismal 0%, and CSS Zen Garden, which scored a respectable 84%. The best mobile site I found in my limited testing was GoodReads' mobile site, which scored 94%. Well, and the W3C's Mobile Web page, which eked by at 95%, but that's to be expected. Oh, and my page that you are viewing right now scores 79%. I'm terribly excited about it, actually. I think I can get it into the 80th percentile if I try a little harder...)